Daniel Lieberman

  • Aired:  05/16/13
  •  | Views: 9,180

Harvard University's Daniel Lieberman explains that human beings are among the best long-distance runners in the world because they're good at sweating. (6:50)

>> Stephen: WELCOME BACK,

EVERYBODY.

MY GUEST IS A PROFESSOR AND

ADVOCATE OF LONG DISTANCE

RUNNING.

NIGH NIPPLES WILL START BLEEDING

HALFWAY THROUGH THE INTERVIEW.

PLEASE WELCOME DANIEL LIEBERMAN.

( CHEERS AND APPLAUSE )

DR. LIEBERMAN, THANKS SO MUCH

FOR COMING.

ALL RIGHT, YOU ARE THE EDWIN

M. LEARNER OF PROFESSOR OF

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES AT HARVARD,

AND YOU ALSO RUN THE SKELETAL

BIOLOGY LAB.

TRUE?

>> I DO.

I CONFESS.

>> Stephen: WHAT IS THE

SKELETAL BIOLOGY LAB?

THAT SOWNS LIKE SOMEONE--

SOMEONE'S PROFESSION RIGHT

BEFORE THEY'RE FIRED AND BECOME

A SUPER VILLAIN.

WHAT MONFROSTS ARE YOU READY TO

LET LOOSE ON MANKIND.

>> WE STUDY WHY THE HUMAN BODY

IS THE WAY IT IS?

>> Stephen: BECAUSE GOD

WANTED IT THAT WAY.

>> EXACTLY.

>> Stephen: THANK YOU.

THIES SHORT INTERVIEW.

>> SINCE WE'RE INTERESTED IN THE

EVOLUTION OF THE BODY, MOST OF

THE REMAINS WE HAVE ARE FOSSIL

BONES.

SO WE FOCUS A LOT ON THE

SKELETON.

HENCE, THE SKELETAL BIOLOGY LAB.

>> Stephen: YOU SAY RUNNING,

WALKING, THROWING, SWEATING?

>> SWEATING, ABSOLUTELY.

>> Stephen: I DON'T SEE

SHOWERING ON THAT LIST.

>> THERE IS A SHOWER DOWN THE

HALLWAY WHICH IS VERY IMPORTANT

OFFER RUN?

>>

>> Stephen: HOW ARE THOSE

RELATED, WALKING RUN, SWEATING.

>> HUMAN BEINGS ARE AMONG THE

BEST LONG DISTANCE RUNNERS IN

THE WORLD AND ONE OF THE REASONS

WE'RE SEE SEW GOOD IS WE'RE GOOD

AT SWEATING.

IF YOU DECIDE TO TAKE YOUR

FAMILY DOG FOR A RUN ON A HOT

DAY GLI WOULD NOT DO THAT, BUT

GO AHEAD.

>> THERE'S A GOOD REASON YOU

SHOULDN'T BECAUSE IF YOU WERE TO

RUN AT A REASONABLE SPEED YOU

WOULD FORCE YOUR DPOG DOGTO

GALLUP EXPWSHT WAY IN WHICH

ANIMALS, LIKE YOUR DOG, COOL IS

PANTING, SHORT, SHALLOW BREATHS.

BUT FOUR-LEGGED ANIMALS CANNOT

GALLUP AND PANT AT THE SAME

TIME.

SO THE POOR LITTLE DOGGY WILL

OVERHEAT IN ABOUT 10, 15 MINUTES

AND YOU'LL KILL IT.

SO DON'T DO THAT.

BUT, BUT, IMAGINE TWO MILLION

YEARS AGO YOU'RE A HUNTER IN THE

MIDDLE OF AFRICA.

PEOPLE HAVEN'T INVENTED EVEN THE

SPEAR.

THEY HAVEN'T INVENTED THE BOW

AND ARROW AND YOU WANT TO GET

DINNER FOR YOUR FAMILY.

YOU CHASE AN ANIMAL, MAKE IT

GAPUL.

THE ANIMAL HIDES IN THE BUSHES,

YOU TRACK TCHASE IT AGAIN, AND

YOU KEEP DOING THIS UNTIL THE

ANIMAL ACTUALLY OVERHEATS AND

YOU CAN DILL CIL IT WITHOUT ANY

TECHNOLOGY.

>> Stephen: CAN WE STILL DO

THIS?

CAN I RUN DOWN AN ANTELOPE?

( LAUGHTER )

>> WELL, WATCHING THE WAY YOU

RAN OVER HERE, YOU HAVE SUCH

GOOD FORM, I BET YOU WOULD HAVE

NO PROBLEM.

>> Stephen: DO I?

>> ABSOLUTELY.

( CHEERS AND APPLAUSE ).

>> Stephen: I'M WEARING

THESE-- THESE-- THESE TOE SHOES.

THEY HAVE INDIVIDUAL TOES.

IT MAKES YOUR FOOT FEEL LIKE

HAND IS WHAT IT FEELS LIKE.

I WANT TO PEEL A BANANA WITH

THESE THINGS.

YOU SAY RUNNING BARE FOOTED OR

IF YOU HAVE TO USE SHOES

SOMETHING LIKE THIS IS BETTER

THAN DOING IT WITH SHOES ON.

WE PAY A LOT, YOU KNOW, FOR

OUR-- FOR OUR AIR JORDANS.

>> WELL, ACTUALLY, I THINK WHAT

MATTERS IS HOW YOU RUN.

AND YOU CAN RUN WELL IN BOOTS.

YOU CAN RUN BARE FOOT.

YOU CAN RUN IN SHOES.

I THINK WHAT MATTERS --

>> Stephen: CAN'T RUN IN

CLOGS.

YOU CANNOT RUN IN CLOGS.

>> CLOGS ARE PRETTY POOR BUT

PEOPLE HAVE TRIED.

THE POINT IS, WHEN YOU'RE BARE

FOOT YOU CAN'T GET AWAY WITH

STUFF YOU CAN IN A SHOE.

WHEN YOU ARE WEARING A SHOE

THERE'S A BIG, CUSHIONED HEEL,

AND IF YOU OVERSTRIKE, LAND WITH

YOUR FOOT IN FRONT OF YOU IT

HURTS.

BUT WHEN BARE FOOT IS HURTS MUCH

MORE BECAUSE YOU HAVE ALL --

>> Stephen: THAT'S GOOD.

>> I DON'T KNOW.

IF SOMETHING HURTS YOUR BODY IS

PROBABLY TELLING YOU SOMETHING

THAT YOU PROBABLY SHOULDN'T BE

DOING IT.

>> Stephen: THE NEXT DAY

AFTER EXERCISING MY BODY OFTEN

HURTS.

THAT'S WHY I STOPPED DOING IT.

>> THAT'S RIGHT.

( LAUGHTER )

SO, THE SO, GREAT THING ABOUT

BARE FOOT RUNNING IS IT'S LIKE A

FREE COACH.

IT TEACHES YOU HOW TO RUN

LIGHTLY AND GENTLY, IF YOU'RE A

THUMP EAR SOMETIMES YOU GO

RUNNING AND HEAR SOMEBODY CRASH

IN THE GROUND.

THAT'S SOMEBODY ABOUT TO GO TO

THE HOSPITAL.

THAT'S AN INJURY IN THE MAKING

BECAUSE THAT CRASH INTO THE

GROUND, THAT COLLISION SENDS A

SHOCK WAVE UP YOUR BODY THAT

CAUSES DAMAGE TO YOUR BODY.

>> Stephen: WHAT HAS IT

DEBATE TO US?

HOW HAS IT CHANGED OUR BODIES

THAT WE ARE NATURAL RUNNERS?

>> IT CHANGES OUR BODIES FROM

HEAD TO TOE.

YOU KNOW WHAT THE LARGEST MUSCLE

IN YOUR BODY IS?

>> Stephen: MY TONGUE.

>> ACTUALLY, YOU'RE SITTING ON

IT, YOUR GLIEWTUS MAXIMUS, YOUR

BUTT.

IF YOU LOOK AT THE BUTT OF A

CHAM PANS EYE, IT'S TINY.

BUT HUMANS HAVE LARGE GLUTEUS

MAXIMUS.

YOU CAN TEST THIS.

GO AHEAD.

( CHEERS AND APPLAUSE ).

>> Stephen: THAT'S NIGHT

NOOIS.

THAT'S NICE.

>> NOW RUN.

NOW HOLD YOUR BUTT WHILE YOU

RUN.

FEEL IT CRUNCHING UP?

YEAH, EXACTLY.

WHAT YOUR BUTT IS DOING, EVERY

TIME YOU HIT THE GROUND YOUR

BODY WANTEDS TO FALL FORWARD BUT

YOU HAVE A BIG, INCREDIBLE

GLIEWTUS MAXIMUS THAT KEEPS YOU

FROM FALLING OVER.

>> Stephen: IF YOU SEE

SOMEONE WITH A BIG BUTT PERHAPS

THE POLITE THING TO SAY IS,

"WOW, ARE YOU REALLY

EVOLUTIONARY ADVANTAGED."

AND I CANNOT LIE.

( CHEERS AND APPLAUSE ).

>> SO WE HAVE ALL KINDS OF

FEATURES IN OUR BODIES THAT MAKE

US GREAT AT RUNNING.

WE HAVE SHORT TOES, AND SPRINGS

IN OUR FEET, AND SPECIAL SENSORY

APPARATUSES IN OUR EARS.

WELL, THE INNER EAR.

>> Stephen: WHAT ABOUT

CHEWING BECAUSE I AM AN EXPERT

CHEWER.

YOU STUDY CHEWING.

I'M A BIT OF A LONG DISTANCE

CHEWER.

YOU CAN DO A FRUIT BY THE FOOT

LIKE YOU WOULDN'T BELIEVE.

WHY IS OUR CHEWING DIFFERENT

THAN OTHER-- EVERYTHING CHOOSE.

>> THE AMAZING THING ABOUT US IS

HOW LITTLE WE DO IT.

IF YOU WENT AND OBSERVED A BUNCH

OF CHIMPANZEES AND GORILLAS,

THEY WOULD RESPOND HALF A DAY

CHEWING.

A HUNTER GATHERINGER EATING AN

ORIGINAL DIET WOULD SPEND 5% OF

THEIR DAY CHEWING, AND MIGHT BE

A TYPICAL AMERICAN AND SPEND

THREE MINUTES CHEWING.

WE'VE CHANGED OUR HEADS AND

SHRUNK OUR TEETH AND LOST OUR

SNOUTS AND EXCRETELY CHANGED --

>> Stephen: WE HAVE SNOUT?

>> YES.

>> Stephen: WHEN DID WE HAVE

A SNOUT?

>> ABOUT THREE MILLION YEARS

AGO, THE SAME TIME WE STARTED

RUNNING, START THROWING, THERE

WAS A BIG SHIFT IN OUR BODIES.

>> Stephen: IT WILL BE

FLOPPING AROUND THE WHOLE TIME.

>> ANYTHING NOT TIED DOWN WILL

BE FLOPPING AROUND WHEN YOU RUN.

I THINK THAT'S WHY WE DEVELOPED

UNDERWEAR, AS WELL.

>> Stephen: ALL RIGHT.

DOCTOR THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR

JOINING ME.

DR. DANIEL LIEBERMAN, "DON'T RUN

WITH SHOES ON."

WE'LL BE RIGHT BACK.

( CHEERS AND APPLAUSE )