Daniel Lieberman

Aired:  11/07/13 Views: 12,885

"The Story of the Human Body" author Daniel Lieberman talks about the many ways humans have evolved over the past 10,000 years. (7:13)

>> WELCOME BACK, EVERYBODY,MY GUEST TONIGHT IS AN

PROFESSOR WITH THE NEW BOOKTHE STORY OF THE HUMAN BODY

EVOLUTION, HEALTH ANDDISEASE.

>> I PICKED HEALTH.

>> PLEASE WELCOME DANIELLIEBERMAN.

(CHEERS AND APPLAUSE)HEY, GOOD TO SEE YOU, HOW

ARE YOU, NICE TO SEE YOUAGAIN, DANIEL.

ALL RIGHT.

YOU HAVE BEEN ON THE SHOWBEFORE, TALKED ABOUT

BAREFOOT RUN LAST TIME.

>> YES.

>> IT IS GETTING COLD, IPREFER TO WEAR SOCKS WHEN IT

IS COLD.

I'M JUST GETTING OLD AND THEOLDER YOU GET THE MORE A

CRAVE WARMTH.

>> Stephen: THAT'S ONE OFTHE THINGS THAT MOD HIRNL

DOES THAT OLD HUMANS DIDN'TDO, WE GET OLD, RIGHT.

THAT'S ONE OF THE ADVANTAGESWE HAVE OVER THEM, WE CAN

JUST, IN A FIGHT WE CAN JUSTOUTLAST THEM.

>> THAT'S TRUE.

>> WHAT IS INTERESTING ISTHE HUNTERS GATHERERS, NASTY

MISERABLE LIVES.

>> Stephen: THEY DID.

>> WELL, ACTUALLY, THEHUNTER GATHERERS IF THEY

SURVIVED CHILDHOOD THEY HADPRETTY HIGH CHILDHOOD

MORTALITY RATES BUT IF THEYSURVIVED THEY LIVED TO THEIR

60s, 70s AND 80s AND WEREEXTRAORDINARILY HEALTHY AS

FAR AS WE COULD TELL.

THEY HAD HEART DISEASE.

THEY DIDN'T HAVE TYPE IIDIABETES.

OSTEOPOROSIS.

WE'VE GOT THEM ALL.

>> Stephen: WE GOT THAT ONTHEM.

>> YEAH.

>> Stephen: THEY ONLY HADONE TYPE OF DIABETES.

>> THEY NEVER NEEDEDOBAMACARE.

YEAH, BECAUSE THEY, YOU KNOWWHAT, THEY LIVED PRETTY LONG

AND VERY HEALTHY LIVES.

AND ALTHOUGH THEY DID GETSICK, THEY DIDN'T GET THE

KIND OF CHRONICNONINFECTIOUS DISEASES THAT

WE GET TODAY.

>> Stephen: WELL, EVERYTHINGYOU ARE SAYING, I DON'T HAVE

TO TELL YOU BUT EVERYTHINGARE YOU SAYING IS IN YOUR

NEW BOOK THE STORY OF THEHUMAN BODY, EVOLUTION,

HEALTH AND DISEASE.

IS OUR BODY, ARE OUR BODIESCHANGING NOW.

>> ABSOLUTELY.

>> Stephen: BECAUSE, YOUKNOW, I THOUGHT EVOLUTION

WAS SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST.

>> WELL, TO SOME EXTENT ITIS, YES.

SO EVOLUTION IS, OCCURS INMULTIPLE WAYS.

ONE KIND OF EVOLUTION ISTHAT, NATURAL SELECTION WHAT

DARWIN WROTE ABOUT, THERE ISVARIATION, SOME OF THE

VARIATIONS LIKE YOU PROBABLYLOOK A BIT LIKE YOUR PARENTS

I IMAGINE BECAUSE YOUINHERITED GENES FROM THEM.

AND THEN LOTS OF SIBLINGS,SOME OF YOU INHERITED

DIFFERENT GENES FROM YOURPARENTS THAN OTHER ONES AND

SOME HAD MORE KIDS THANOTHERS.

AND THOSE OF YOU WHO HADGENES THAT BENEFITTED YOU IN

TERMS OF HAVING MOREOFFSPRING, ARE YOU GOING TO

PASS THOSE GENES ONPREFERENTIALALLY TO THE NEXT

GENERATION SO, THAT ISNATURAL SELECTION.

>> Stephen: IF YOU ACCEPTNATURAL SELECTION.

>> EXACTLY.

>> Stephen: BECAUSE IT ISTHE THEORY OF EVOLUTION AND

A ASSUME THAT THIS BOOK ISON THE PRO THEORY SIDE.

>> ABSOLUTELY.

>> Stephen: OKAY.

A LOT OF BOOKS ARE AGAINSTIT, THIS IS ONE-ON-ONE SIDE

THERE ARE A LOT AGAINSTxD IT.

>> AT LEAST I'M ON THE SAMESIDE AS THE POPE SO IT'S

OKAY.

BUT ANYWAY-- .

>> Stephen: YOU'RE NOT GOINGTO WIN ANY POINTS BY TALKING

ABOUT THE POPE WITH ME, OKAY,THAT GUY IS ALSO PRO POOR,

BUT GO AHEAD.

>> THERE IS ANOTHER KIND OFEVOLUTION.

IT'S CULTURAL EVOLUTION.

SO OUR CULTURES�� CHANGE TOO.

LIKE FOR EXAMPLE YOU KNOW,IF YOU HAD BEEN GIVING THERE

SHOW IN THE 17th OR 18thCENTURY YOU WOULD BE WEARING

A REALLY FANTASTIC WIG.

>> Stephen: I WOULD BEBURNED AS A WITCH BECAUSE TV

DIDN'T EXIST BACK THEN.

>> EXACTLY AND SPENDING ALOT OF MONEY ON THAT POWDER

AND THAT KIND OF STUFF.

BUT WE GREW BEYOND THAT WENO LONGER WEAR WIGS, OTHER

THINGS IN OUR CULTURECONSTANTLY CHANGED.

>> Stephen: GAY MARRIAGE.

>> GAY MARRIAGE, EXACTLY.

ALL KINDS OF THINGS ARECHANGE�� AND THOSE CHANGES

AFFECT OUR BODIES, SOME OFTHEM, GAY MARRIAGE OBVIOUSLY

AFFECTS OUR BODIES.

>> Stephen: OBVIOUSLY.

EVER SINCE GAY MARRIAGE ISLEGAL I KEEP GAINING WEIGHT.

>> IT'S LIKE SUGAR.

>> Stephen: IT IS.

TRANSFAT WA, ABOUT OUR DIET,OUR DIET HAS CHANGED.

>> HE NOR LOSELY.

INCREDIBLY SINCEINDUSTRIALIZATION, SO THE

FIRST BIG SHIFT IN OUR DIETWAS REALLY AGRICULTURE

REVOLUTION SO, WE STARTEDGROWING FOOD.

>> Stephen: WHAT ARE WETALKING ABOUT, 1960s?

>> WELL, IT STARTED ABOUT600 GENERATIONS AGO SO.

>> Stephen: WHAT IS THAT,1940s.

>> 1940s, 10,000 YEARSBEFORE THAT.

>> Stephen: 10,000 YEARS AGOWE STARTED GROWING CORN.

>> WELL, YES, IN THE MIDDLEEAST YOU STARTED GROWING

BARLEY AND WHEAT IN CHINARICE AND IN THE NEAR EAST,

IN MESSO AMERICA WE STARTEDGROWING CORN BUT THAT IS

ONLY 6-GENERATIONS AGO THATIS THE NUMBER OF GENERATIONS

OF MISE THAT HAVE LIVED INMY BASEMENT IN THE LAST 100

YEARS.

>> Stephen: WOW, YOU GOT APROBLEM.

>> ACTUALLY, WE DO.

AND I'M CONSTANTLY OUT THEREWITH MY MOUSE TRAPS.

BUT ANYWAY, BUT WHAT HASHAPPENED IS THAT THAT IS

ACTUALLY NOT THATCH TIME.

WE'VE HE VOLUME OFED SINCETHEN.

THERE HAVE BEEN ADAPTATION,FOR EXAMPLE WHEN MY

ANCESTORS AND MAYBE YOURANCESTORS ADAPTIONS TO DRINK

MILK, SO THAT IS A NATURALSELECTION.

BUT-- .

>> Stephen: THEY GOT THATHEAT VISION.

>> YES, WOULDN'T THAT BECOOL.

BUT THE OTHER SIDE OF THECOIN IS THAT THERE IS A LOT

OF CHANGES THAT WE HAVE HADTHAT WHICH WE HAVEN'T

ADAPTED FOR.

AND SO WE GET WHAT WE CALLMISMATCH DISEASE, DISEASES

IN WHICH OUR BODIES AREINADEQUATELY ADAPTED TO THE

MAD EARN WORLD AND SUGAR ISONE OF THE BIGGEST ONES.

WE CANNOT HANDLE FOODS THATHAVE A LOT OF SUGAR.

>> Stephen: BUT EVOLUTIONARILY, DON'T WE CRAVE SUGAR,

ISN'T THAT THE REASON WHY ITTASTES SO GREAT TO US.

>> RIGHT.

>> Stephen: IS EVOLUTIONKILLING US?

>> IN A WAY, IN A WAY IT'SBECAUSE OF EVOLUTION THAT WE

CRAVE SUGAR BECAUSE SUGAR ISFULL OF ENERGY.

AND IF YOU ARE A HUNTERGATHERERER YOU ARE BARELY

SURVIVING IT IS GREAT TOWANT AS MUCH SUGAR AS YOU

CAN, HUNTERS LOVE HONEY,THEY WILL EAT AS MUCH AS

THEY CAN BUT THEY DON'T GETTHAT MUCH.

MOST OF THE FOOD IS A ABOUTAS SWEET AS A CARROT.

>> Stephen: WHAT ABOUTTRANSFATS, DID THEY HAVE

THAT.

>> THEY DON'T HAVE TRANSFATSAS YOU KNOW.

>> Stephen: I DID NOT KNOW,I WOULDN'T HAVE ASKED.

>> TRANSFATS WERE INVENTEDVERY RECENTLY AND OUR BODIES

CANNOT HANDLE THEM.

JUST LYING SUGAR.

>> Stephen: THEY ARE ILLEGALIN NEW YORK, LIKE NEW YORK

CITY THEY CAN'T HAVETRANSFATS.

>> GOOD FOR NEW YORK.

IT WAS THE RIGHT THING TODO.

>> Stephen: ISN'T THATANTI-EVOLUTIONARY BECAUSE IF

WE DON'T EAT THE TRANSFAT WEWON'T KNOW WHO CAN SURVIVE

EATING TRANSFAT TO PASS THATEVOLUTIONARY ADVANTAGE ON TO

OUR CHILDREN, THEN WE WOULDHAVE A SUPERRACE THAT CAN

EAT TRANSFAT.

FANNED WE CAN SURVIVETRANSFATS, NOTHING CAN KILL

US.

>> THE ONLY WAY THAT YOUREXPERIMENT WILL WORK, IF YOU

EVER GET APPROVAL FOR ITWHICH DOUBT, IS, IS IF

EATING TRANSFATS AFFECTEDYOUR ABILITY TO HAVE

OFFSPRING BECAUSE ALLNATURAL SELECTION CARES

ABOUT IS HOW MANY OFFSPRING.

AND MOST OF THE DISEASE YOUGET FROM TRANSFATS DON'T HIT

YOU UNTIL YOU ARE AGRANDPARENT.

>> Stephen: IF WE TOOK AWAYTHE THINGS THAT WERE CAUTION

ME TO BE SICK FROM BEING OLDHOW MUCH OLDER COULD I LIVE.

BECAUSE I WOULD LIKE TO LIVEFOREVER.

>> WE HAVEN'T FIGURED THATONE OUT YET BUT MAYBE

SCIENTISTS IN WHITE LABCOATS WILL DO THAT BUT I

THINK THAT IS UNLIKELY.

>> Stephen: WOULD YOU LIKETO LIVE LONGER.

>> YEAH, PROBABLY.

>> Stephen: HOW LONG WOULDYOU LIKE TO LIVE.

>> I WOULD THINK 92.

THAT'S PERFECT, YEAH.

>> Stephen: I WOULD LIKETHAT TOO.

NOW I WANT TO LIVE 93, TOBEAT�r YOU.

THANK YOU SOME OF FORJOINING ME.

(CHEERS AND APPLAUSE)>> DANIEL, THE STORY OF THE

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